Pauler Acoustics: Better than the Microphone

Until today, high-class analog microphone amps were superior to any digital system. A/D conversion and the 16-bit limit significantly reduced the audio quality. Now, with the advent of Stage Tec's new converter and microphone preamp, this issue is history. We are talking about 28 bits! 

Being its first user, Mr. Günther Pauler employed the 28-bit converter made by Stage Tec. He was able to achieve remarkably transparent recordings in the »Kerk Van de Doopsgezinde Gemeente« in Haarlem, Netherlands; this church is renowned for its excellent acoustics. Our photo shows a session in the church, with the Spirit of Gambo ensemble recording their new CD – supported by a True Match RMC unit by Stage Tec.

Complete silence rules the hall. Everybody is eagerly waiting for the maestro's first note. The red light is flashing – we are in record mode. »I hope he will not be louder than he was during the rehearsal. Last time we had some distortion at one point. Maybe I should put down the input level a bit, but then again I'll get more noise...«

Imagine this recording engineer had a microphone preamp with more headroom than the microphone itself; no level pre-adjustment would be necessary. Further, it would be nice to have an A/D converter with a dynamic range greater than any mic – we could virtually forget about level issues during recording sessions and could »fix it in the mix« later. What a wonderful dream. Sometimes, however, dreams come true: Stage Tec's new 28-bit converter offers just that!

Hardly Input Noise

The combination of the input and converter stages of the new system creates an input noise of –134 dBu – roughly the same as the input noise of a 60-ohm resistor. Now what about the microphone? With a sample impedance of 200 ohm, its noise performance is limited to a theoretical optimum of –128 dBu. Thus, the microphone noise »masks« the converter noise.

In a combination of a microphone and our converter, it is the microphone that determines the bottom end of the dynamic range. Now let's look at the top end. The new converter handles input levels of up to +22 dBu – much more than the highest microphone-output level. This means that it is practically impossible to overload the converter input. To achieve a total 150 dB of dynamics, Stage Tec developed a new conversion method called TrueMatch that meanwhile was issued a patent for.

The previous version of NEXUS converter boards already used a 24-bit TrueMatch; however, their resolution was limited to 22-bit words. The new generation of converters has a resolution of 26.5 bits that is enhanced to 28 bits. The user benefits from this enhancement in two ways as not only quantization noise is avoided but the input noise can be used for »natural dithering«. With 26.5 bits, the quantization noise is equal to the converter noise, resulting in a total deterioration of 3 dB. Increasing the resolution to 28 bits reduces the quantization noise to about 10 dB below the converter noise; thus, quantization noise is practically not perceivable anymore. Moreover, the microphone noise must still be added – and this is a minimum of 6 dB above converter noise.

Today, however, there is no commercial recording system capable of storing a 28-bit signal. So, what use has a converter with a resolution such high? When recording on a 16-bit medium, there is actually little improvement: Although the converter's high linearity can certainly be perceived, clipping may occur. The situation improves where a data compressor is used to process a 20-bit signal in a way that it can be stored on a 16-bit medium, providing you with a dynamic range of 120 dB. Even if we deduct a 20-dB headroom, we still can utilize 100 dB. This assumes that the converter is properly lined up as it is used as microphone preamp at the same time. Anyway, pre-amplification can be adjusted between 0…70 dB – not too bad.

This adjustment can be omitted if a true 24-bit recording medium is used. In this case, gain is always adjusted to +15 dB for a dynamic microphone and 0 dB for a condenser microphone, and everything that the microphone delivers will be recorded. This may be of special interest for high-end mastering applications and in DVD production where 24-bit recording has become a standard. Finally, in combination with CANTUS, the full 28-bit sensation is guaranteed. If there is clipping, it was the microphone, or you have unfaithfully inserted an old analog microphone preamp into the chain.


The new 28-bit converter is available in two versions: a module board for the NEXUS system and a stand-alone version. The 4-channel NEXUS board is called XMAD (NeXus Microphone A/D converter). In conjunction with CANTUS, XMAD shows its superiority: the full 28-bit word is delivered to CANTUS via a NEXUS direct out, and CANTUS is capable of processing each and every bit! Processing an AES/EBU signal is a different thing: the standard limits the signal width to 24 bits.

The other version – the TrueMatch RMC stand-alone converter – features a 24-bit resolution, too. It supports up to 24 input channels and provides a high-quality front end for recording and mastering studios.

TV and Radio Broadcast


  • HSE24 Home Shopping Europe AG  Ismaning, Germany
  • RSI Broadcast Center  Lugano, Switzerland
  • tpc Metechno, Broadcast Center  Zurich, Switzerland


  • Antena 3 Madrid (TV)  Madrid, Spain
  • ASTRO (Malaysian satellite television) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Anhui TV  Hefei-Anhui, China
  • Auditorium Rai di Napoli  Naples, Italy
  • BBC Scotland Glasgow, United Kingdom weiterlesen blau 2019
  • BR Bayerischer Rundfunk  Munich, Nuremberg, Germany weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Canal 9  Valencia, Spain
  • CCTV  Beijing, China weiterlesen blau 2019 weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Crow TV-Studio  Tokyo, Japan
  • Deutschlandradio  Berlin, Cologne, Germany
  • Deutsche Welle TV  Berlin, Germany weiterlesen blau 2019
  • FM 802 Radio  Osaka, Japan weiterlesen blau 2019
  • FRANCE 2  Paris, France
  • Fuji TV  Tokyo, Japan  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • HSE24 Home Shopping Europe AG  Ismaning, Germany
  • HR Hessischer Rundfunk Frankfurt, Germany
  • J.V.E. facilities   Almere, The Netherlands  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • MDR Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk  Leipzig, Germany weiterlesen blau 2019
  • NDR 2  Hannover, Germany
  • NDR Norddeutscher Rundfunk Hamburg, Hannover, Kiel, Schwerin, Germany
  • Plazamedia TV&Film Produktion  Ismaning, Germany
  • Phoenix TV Station  Bonn, Germany
  • RAI  Rome, Milan, Naples, Torino, Italy  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Radio Bremen  Bremen, Germany  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • RAI Radio  Rome, Italy  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Rom TV  Rome, Italy
  • RTS Radiotelevisione svizzera  Geneva, Switzerland  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • RTBF Brussels, Belgium  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • RTM Kuala Lumpur  Kuala Lumpur, Perdana, Seremban, Malaysia  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • RSI - Radiotelevisione svizzera  Lugano, Switzerland
  • TAI Television News Agency  Warsaw, Poland
  • Television de Galicia  Galicia, Spain
  • TVP Telewizja Polska  Warsaw, Poland  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Tianjin Radio Station  Tianjin, China
  • tpc zürich ag  Zurich, Switzerland  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • TSR Télévision Suisse Romande  Geneva, Switzerland
  • TVE Radio Televisión Espanola  Madrid, Spain
  • WDR Westdeutscher Rundfunk  Cologne, Bocklemund, Dusseldorf,  Germany  weiterlesen blau 2019


  • ASTRO  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  weiterlesen blau 2019
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  • HR Hessischer Rundfunk  Frankfurt/Main, Kassel, Germany
  • HSE24 Home Shopping Europe AG  Ismaning, Germany
  • HBTV Hubei Broadcasting Group  Wuhan, China
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  • Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) Yeongdeungpo District, Seoul, Korean
  • Life News TV, Moscow, Russia
  • M6 TV  Paris, France
  • Media Prima Berhad  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • NDR  Hamburg, Germany
  • NOSPR Narodowa Orkiestra Symfoniczna Polskiego Radia  Katowice, Poland
  • ONE TV / Dorna Sports Management Rome, Italy
  • Plazamedia TV&Film Produktion  Ismaning, Germany
  • Rede Bahia de Televisao  Salvador, Brazil
  • RTBF  Brussels, Belgium
  • RTM  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • RTS Radiotelevisione svizzera  Geneva, Switzerland
  • SBT Sistema Brasileiro de Televisao Sao Paulo, Brazil  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Shenzhen TV  Shenzhen, China
  • Sveriges Radio  Stockholm, Sweden
  • tpc zürich ag  Zurich, Switzerland
  • TSR Télévision Suisse Romande  Geneva, Switzerland
  • TVE Radio Televisión Espanola  Barcelona, Spain
  • Vatican Radio  Vatican, Italy  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Videohouse  Brussels, Belgium
  • VRT Brussels, Belgium


  • ASTRO TV  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Bernama News TV  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • BR Bayerischer Rundfunk  Nuremberg, Germany
  • CCTV  Beijing, China
  • CJ E&M Brodcasting Centre  Seoul, Korea
  • EPTV  Campinas, Brazil
  • FFS Film- & Fernseh-Synchron  Berlin, Germany  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Henan  Zhengzhou, China
  • HBTV Hubei Broadcasting Group  Wuhan, China
  • Moscovia Broadcasting Company  Moscow, Russia
  • OMTV - Olympic Marseille Football Team  Marseille, France
  • Plazamedia TV&Film Produktion  Ismaning, Germany
  • Radio Kuwait  Kuwait
  • RTBF Brussels, Charleroi, Belgium
  • RTL Radio  Paris, France
  • RTM TV  Sarawak, Malaysia weiterlesen blau 2019
  • RTM TV  Kuala Lumpur, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • SBT Sistema Brasileiro de Televisao  Sao Paulo, Brazil  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Shenzhen TV  Shenzhen, China
  • Tele M1  Aarau, Switzerland
  • Tele 1  Luzern, Switzerland
  • VRT  Brussels, Belgium
  • WDR Westdeutscher Rundfunk Siegen, Bonn, Cologne, Essen, Wuppertal, Aachen, Münster, Bielefeld, Dortmund, Duisburg weiterlesen blau 2019  Germany


  • ABC Australian Broadcast Corporation  Sydney, Canberra, Hobart, Brisbane, Perth, Melbourne, all Australia
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  • ASTRO (Malaysian satellite television)  Cyberjaya, Malaysia
  • CCTV Movie Channel  Beijing, China
  • HR Hessischer Rundfunk  Frankfurt, Germany
  • HSE24 Home Shopping Europe AG  Ismaning, Germany
  • NDR (tv station) Kiel, Hannover, Germany
  • Plazamedia TV&Film Produktion  Ismaning, Germany
  • Radio Pilatus   Lucerne, Switzerland  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • SDTV QILU Channel  Beijing, China
  • Shanghai Education Television  Shanghai, China
  • tpc Zürich  Zurich, Schwitzerland
  • WDR  Duisburg, Dusseldorf, Wuppertal, Germany
  • Xiamen Travel Channel  Xiamen, China


  • All India Radio New Delhi, India  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Antena 3  Madrid, Islas Baleares, Spain
  • BBC  London, United Kingdom
  • BBC North Manchester, United Kingdom  weiterlesen blau 2019
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  • Canal Mundo Radio  Madrid, Spain
  • Canal+: Paris, France  weiterlesen blau 2019
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  • HR Hessischer Rundfunk Gießen, Fulda, Darmstadt, Wiesbaden, Kassel, Germany weiterlesen blau 2019
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  • NBC  New York, USA
  • NHK  Tokio, Japan
  • n-tv  Berlin, Germany
  • ORB/DVB-FSZ Ostdeutscher Rundfunk  Potsdam, Germany
  • ORF Eisenstadt, Dornbirn, Austria
  • Onda Cero Radio  Madrid, Spain
  • ONE TV / Dorna Sports Management Rome, Italy
  • Polskie Radio S.A.  Warsaw, Poland weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Portuguese Broadcasting Service  Lisbon, Portugal
  • PTT  Madrid, Spain
  • Public Radio of the Ukraine  Kiew, Ukraine
  • Radio Caracol  Bogota, Colombia
  • Radio Cope  Madrid, Spain
  • Radio 9  Valencia, Spain
  • Radio France  Paris, France
  • Radio Traffic  Paris, France
  • Radio Marca  Madrid, Spain
  • RBB FS Berlin, Germany
  • RPP Radio Programas del Peru  Peru
  • RTS Radiotelevisione svizzera  Geneva, Switzerland   weiterlesen blau 2019
  • RTL Berlin, Germany
  • SAT 1  Zurich, Switzerland
  • SFB Sender Freies Berlin  Berlin, Germany
  • Staatlicher Rundfunk Usbekistan  Uzbekistan
  • Studio Hamburg  Hamburg, Germany
  • SWR Südwestrundfunk Stuttgart, Baden-Baden, Germany  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Tele 5  Madrid, Spain
  • Televisión de Galicia  Santiago de Compostela, Spain
  • TF 1  Paris, France  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • TV 1 Napoli  Naples, Italy
  • Unitel  Unterföhring, Germany
  • Vatican Radio Vatican, Italy  weiterlesen blau 2019
  • Yunnan TV  Kunming, China
  • ZDF Mainz, Berlin, Germany
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